Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. One in eight women in the U.S. will be diagnosed with breast cancer in her lifetime. While rare, it is also possible for men to get breast cancer. Fortunately, outcomes for breast cancer patients have improved significantly in recent decades.
Early diagnosis is important to successfully treating breast cancer. If you know the warning signs, you can get medical attention for yourself or your loved one sooner. Since breast cancer is so common, it is important for everyone to know the warning signs.
7 Breast Cancer Warning Signs
1. New lump in breast, collar, or underarm
The most well-known warning sign when it comes to breast cancer is a breast lump. A lump can occur in the breast itself, but may also appear in the collar region or underarm. Breast tissue extends from your collarbone to your underarm and rib cage. Lumps are often hard and painless with irregular edges, but some lumps may be painful or tender.
Most breast lumps are not caused by cancer, but if you find a lump, it’s important to have it looked at by a doctor. It is normal to have breast lumps before your period that go away. If you have a lump that does not disappear at the end of your period, you should alert your doctor.
2. Breast thickening or swelling
Breast thickening or swelling may be a sign of breast cancer. Swelling can also occur around your collarbone or armpits. This may be a sign that breast cancer has spread to your lymph nodes. Sometimes, patients notice breast swelling without ever noticing a lump. Thickening or swelling may cause a noticeable change in the size or shape of your breasts. Thickening or swelling may occur in one breast, or in both.
3. Breast skin dimpling
Breast dimpling may appear in a few different ways. It may appear as a single dimple, if there is a mass growing in the breast that is pulling the skin inward. Dimpling may also appear along with thickened skin, which may look like the dimples on an orange peel. This is a sign of a rare form of breast cancer called inflammatory breast cancer. Since dimpling is so visible, it is often the first sign someone notices. Be alert to any changes in the texture of your breasts.
4. Nipple changes
Changes to one or both nipples may be a sign of breast cancer. Changes can include discharge, which may be bloody. Blood can be a sign that the cause is breast cancer rather than an infection. Your nipple might turn inward or the skin may become red, scaly, or thickened.
5. Red, flaky, itchy, warm, or thickened skin
Sometimes, red, flaky, itchy, warm, or thickened skin can be a sign of breast cancer. Thickened skin may begin to feel like an orange peel. The most common cause of these symptoms is mastitis. Mastitis is an infection that can occur while breastfeeding but is also a sign of breast cancer. If you’re experiencing these symptoms and they’ve lasted more than a week, you should talk to your doctor.
6. Breast, upper back, or shoulder pain
It is normal to experience some breast pain around the time of your period, due to hormonal changes. Breast pain may also be a sign of breast cancer, especially if it lasts for more than a few weeks. Pain from breast cancer is most likely to appear in the breasts, underarm, or collarbone. It is also possible for pain to appear in the upper back or shoulder.
Some patients assume they’ve pulled a muscle in their shoulder when they have breast cancer. This pain can be due to metastasis, which is when cancer spreads from one part of the body to another. Shoulder and upper back pain are very common and usually don’t mean a patient has breast cancer. If you’ve had shoulder or back pain that won’t go away, a doctor can screen you for cancer, along with other conditions.
7. No symptoms at all
Some women with breast cancer don’t experience any symptoms at all. It is important to follow guidelines for screening even if you don't have symptoms. Here are the current screening recommendations, according to the American Cancer Society:
- Women ages 40-44 should have the choice to have an annual breast exam and mammogram if they wish to.
- Women ages 45-54 should have a mammogram every year.
- Women 55 and older can either continue yearly mammograms or switch to every two years.
- Screening should continue as long as the patient is healthy and expected to live for at least ten more years.
Different organizations have different screening recommendations, and some women should have screening earlier. This is especially true if you have a family history of breast cancer since breast cancer can be genetic. Speak to your doctor about the best screening plan for you if you have a family history of breast cancer. This may include mammograms or even genetic testing.
Breast Cancer in the Elderly
Breast cancer risk increases with age. A third of women diagnosed are older than 70! Cancer risk in general increases with age, and breast cancer is no exception. If you’re a caregiver for an aging relative, make sure they receive proper screenings. Teach them the signs of breast cancer so they know what to look for.
Fortunately, the rate of breast cancer in women over 50 has been going down in recent years. Yet, as the population ages, the number of older women with breast cancer will continue to be high.
There is no one-size-fits-all approach to treating breast cancer in the elderly. Cancer treatments include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Doctors often use a combination of these treatments for a single case of cancer. These treatments are hard on the body. Doctors must consider their patients’ ability to handle treatment when developing a plan.
Older patients are more likely to experience treatment side effects than younger patients. Sometimes, minimal treatment may be the best option. This may be the case if the cancer is not aggressive and the patient has other health conditions. This is a growing area of research and different doctors have different approaches. Your loved one may want to discuss treatment options with a few different doctors to find a treatment plan that makes them most comfortable.
Advice for Caring for a Loved One With Breast Cancer
If your loved one has breast cancer, your first response may be fear and uncertainty. You may also find yourself in a caregiving role once treatment begins. Cancer treatment is hard on the body, so your loved one may need more support throughout the day. If your spouse has breast cancer, you may have to take on a bigger role with childcare and housework.
Here are some tips to keep in mind as you step into your caregiving role:
- Remain flexible and patient. Your loved one might have a lot of energy one day but feel exhausted the next. Avoid having expectations and instead take things day by day.
- Let go of some responsibilities. If possible, step back from things that take a lot of time or energy. If you are always running out of time, make a list of things that you need to do then see if there’s anything you can cut.
- Accept help. Chances are you have friends and family members who want to support you but don’t know how. Don’t be afraid to ask for support, even if it’s as simple as asking someone to pick your kids up from school sometimes.
- Keep doing things you enjoy. Caregiving can be all-consuming. You will need to avoid burnout for your own wellbeing and so you can be a good caregiver. Continue to do things you enjoy, even if they’re small. Read a book, take a walk alone, or go out for lunch with a friend. Even simple things can re-energize you.
- Allow yourself to process your feelings. It’s normal to feel scared, uncertain and angry when someone you love gets a cancer diagnosis. You may not have had the time to process your feelings if you’re a caregiver now. It might not feel like a priority, but it’s important to take time to process your feelings. Many cancer centers have support groups for family members of patients. Ask your loved one’s doctor about support services.
Breast cancer will impact your loved one even after they’ve finished treatment. Don’t wait for things to return to normal to celebrate. Celebrate milestones such as finishing surgery or making it through chemotherapy. If the cancer is in remission, celebrate, even if your loved one doesn’t have their energy back yet. It will take time for cancer to be behind you. Embrace your new normal as you support your loved one through their cancer.
How In-Home Care Can Support Those with Breast Cancer
In-home care providers can offer support to breast cancer patients every step of the way. In-home care can begin at the hospital or after treatments. Care providers can help with a variety of tasks, tailored to exactly what you or a loved one may need. Some examples of supports are:
- Companionship in the hospital
- Meal preparation
- Light housework
- Bathing, dressing, and hygiene
- Medication reminders
- Help with exercise
- Transportation to appointments and treatments
People undergoing breast cancer treatment have less energy than usual. They may also be uncomfortable with the fact that they need help with daily tasks. It can be hard to ask family to help with things like bathing and dressing. In-home supports allow your loved one to save their strength for enjoyable activities.
In-home care providers know how to help with daily tasks while maintaining dignity. A breast cancer diagnosis affects the whole family. In-home care for cancer recovery offers a foundation of support that everyone can count on. If your loved one prefers for family to help with only certain tasks, in-home care can fill the gaps. If your loved one has an older spouse, in-home care can ensure that they both remain safe at home.
Breast Cancer Risk Factors
Having some breast cancer risk factors is common, but it doesn’t mean that you will get breast cancer. However, breast cancer screenings are important if you have several risk factors. Some breast cancer risk factors are uncontrollable, but some are controllable, meaning with certain actions you can help prevent cancer before it starts. Here are some risk factors for breast cancer:
Uncontrollable Risk Factors
- Advanced Age. Older women are more likely to get breast cancer than younger women.
- Inherited Mutations. Women who inherit certain genes, such as the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, are much more likely to develop breast cancer.
- Family History. A first-degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer increases your breast cancer risk. First-degree relatives include parents, siblings, and children.
- Early Menstruation or Late Menopause. Hormone exposure increases breast cancer risk, and menstruation leads to hormone exposure.
- Dense Breast Tissue. Women with dense breasts are more likely to get breast cancer. Dense breasts may also make it harder to detect breast cancer.
- Previous Chest Radiation. Chest radiation therapy before the age of 30 increases the risk of breast cancer later in life.
Controllable Risk Factors
- Sedentary Lifestyle. Maintaining an active lifestyle can lower your risk of developing breast cancer.
- Being Overweight After Menopause. Women who are overweight later in life have a higher risk of developing breast cancer.
- Hormone Therapy. Hormone replacement therapy taken during menopause increases your chances of developing breast cancer. Also, certain hormone-based forms of birth control increase breast cancer risk.
- Reproductive History. Breast cancer risk is lower for women who have given birth and for those who have breastfed.
- Alcohol Consumption. Drinking alcohol can increase breast cancer risk. Alcohol abuse in seniors is especially harmful, and can lead to other worsened health conditions.
Treatment Options for Seniors with Breast Cancer
Recommendations state that women with a life expectancy of 10 years or more should get mammograms. Life expectancy is difficult to predict, so older patients should talk to their doctors about mammograms to decide on the best plan for them.
Breast cancer treatment for seniors is evolving. Standard breast cancer treatment can include:
- Hormone Therapy
There is evidence that many older women do well with surgery and hormone therapy. Older women are more likely to have breast cancer that is responsive to hormone therapy.Some doctors don't think that radiation is necessary for these patients. Researchers are working to find the best course of treatment for older women. In general, older women have received the same treatments as younger women. Now, doctors recognize that older women with breast cancer are unique, and they are beginning to treat them according to their specific needs.
Cancer treatment decisions are very personal because treatments have side effects and challenges. For some women, the toll of aggressive treatment might not be worth the benefits. Older patients who experience frailty may have a harder time recovering from treatment.
If an older loved one has breast cancer, their doctor must understand their values and goals. Talk through the benefits and side effects of all treatment options. It is important to have a geriatric specialist as part of the treatment team. They can help with assessment, which will support the team in developing a personalized treatment plan.
Learn more about how Home Care Assistance's cancer care services can help you or a loved one.